Case Study Assignment Help on Natural Disasters

Case Study Assignment Help on Natural Disasters

Several climate events such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, droughts, floods, cyclones, tsunamis, global climate and weather threaten people or property and are called natural disasters. Developing countries suffer more than 95% of deaths because of natural disasters. Their high population density and poor infrastructure, unstable landforms and exposure to severe weather events make them vulnerable. In this assignment help paper, resources and tools for monitoring natural phenomena will be discussed. Along with this case study assignment help, three different natural phenomena will be discussed including their potential impact, geographic location, monitoring resources, political and economic factors and disaster preparedness systems.

Resources for monitoring natural phenomena There are various resources, tools and systems that help to monitor the natural phenomena such as remote sensing, GIS, GPS, global observing system, global telecommunication system, global data processing system and etc. Remote sensing is the science for acquiring information about the earth using remote instruments such as satellites (Mamat, Mansor & Poy, 2001). It offers accurate, frequent and almost instantaneous data over large areas anywhere in the world. When a disaster happens, remote sensing is the only way to view what is happening on the ground. Along with this, science and advanced information technology including GIS and remote sensing has provided a way to monitor the disasters and save the community. Spatial information technologies are useful to manage the disasters due to their resources, activities and natural conditions.

Earthquakes An Earthquake is a sudden and rapid shaking of earth caused by the breaking and shifting of rocks under the earth surface. Stresses build beneath the earth surface and stress is released resulting in sudden and sometimes disastrous shaking called an earthquake. The shaking of a seconds or minutes may cause several earthquakes over a period from hours to weeks. Impact of earthquakes: Earthquakes produce various damaging effects on the area where they acted. The worst impact on society of earthquake is loss of human life. Along with this, it leads to destruction of structures such as buildings, bridges, and dams and trigger landslides (Pellerin, 2010).

Apart from producing floods and destroying buildings, earthquakes take place under the ocean that can cause of tsunamis or tidal waves. They can destroy entire populations and cities near coastlines. For example, in Japan population of 20,000 people suffered in 1896 from an earthquake. Geographic locations: From the earthquake, mainly East and south Asia region are affected. In that region, countries like Nepal, China, Turkey, India, Ecuador, Philippines, Indonesia and Pakistan are affected by earthquakes.  Along with this, Japan is on top of the list according to frequency of earthquakes (Forbes, 2010). In Japan, Tokyo, Nagoya and Kobe are mostly affected cities. Recently in 2010, Haiti has faced the strongest earthquake that affects around 3million people. Resources: Remote sensing can improve the forecasting of this disaster by using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR). It includes two or more sequential radar images to measure ground motion very accurately. Along with this, PALSAR is also used to assess damages and extent of ground movement and deformation (Lewis, 2009).

In addition of this, GPS monitoring stations help to measure and study the earth’s crustal deformation. Using GPS monitoring stations located near active faults, researchers can measure the earth’s movements within 5mm or less and calculate ground deformation leading to better earthquake predictions (Pellerin, 2010). Disaster Preparedness: Countries such as Japan and Mexico have better earthquake detection and warning systems and US has spent $1billion to develop preparedness system. For surviving in disaster situation, people should have right survival kits, earthquake kits, survival gear, emergency food and water and medicines (Jones & Murphy, 2009). Along with this, countries offer individuals, communities, governments, and businesses with ready-to-use emergency supplies for surviving a catastrophic event.

Volcano A volcano is a place on the earth’s surface where molten rocks, gases and pyroclastic debris erupt from earth’s crust. Magma is molten rock under earth and when magma erupts from crust it is called lava (Whyte, 2010). It can be thick and slow moving or thin and fast moving. Rock also comes from volcanoes in the form of gas, liquid and air bubbles. Impact of volcanoes: Volcanic gas affects on climate, the environment, and people in negative manner. Volcanic gases are harmful to humans, animals, plants, agricultural crops, and property. Acid gases such as sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and hydrogen chloride can damage eyes and mucous membranes along with the respiratory system. Around 2000 people have died from carbon dioxide near volcanoes in past two decades (Groppelli & Viereck-Goette, 2010).

Along with this, volcanic gases can also damage vegetation. Some gases are greenhouses gases that promote global warming, while other like sulfur dioxide can cause global cooling, ozone destruction and air pollution.            Geographic location: Volcanoes are mainly raised in islands and coastal region of continents. The main area of volcanoes is Mediterranean and Western Asia, Africa and Red Sea, Middle East and Indian Ocean (Rose, 2006). In that area, various countries are included such as New Zealand, Fiji, Melanesia, Australia, Indonesia, Philippines, Japan, Taiwan, Marianas, Kuril Islands, Alaska, Canada and Western USA, Hawaii and Pacific Ocean, México and Central America, South America, West Indies, Iceland and Arctic Ocean and Antarctica. Monitoring resources: There are various tools and technologies to monitor this natural disaster such as satellites, seismographs, tiltmeters, hydrology instruments and gas trapping bottles. Satellites monitor volcanoes from space and provide wide information and signs of possible eruption (Boyle, 2012). From special sensors, it can detect heat, sulfur dioxide and small changes in the Earth’s surface.

Seismographs measure the movement of the planet’s crust. Along with this, the tiltmeters calculates that how far the lava moves on ground. Hydrological instruments are used to monitor the changes in water that helps to predict a volcanic eruption. Disaster preparedness: Recent advancement in volcano monitoring helps to prepare for the situation of disaster and reduce the negative impact of this on human life (Rose, 2006). So, communication through media, social communities, websites and internet should be used to share information and warnings. People should participate in volcano emergency planning workshops and emergency response exercises to face the disaster situation and save their lives.

Tsunamis A tsunami is a series of huge ocean waves that are caused by a rapid, large-scale disturbance of the sea water. Submarine volcanic eruptions, submarine landslides and major earthquakes are main cause of Tsunamis (Valdes, Halabrin & Lamb, 2012). In deep water, the height of tsunami waves are less than a meter, but they can travel at high speeds 800 kilometers per hour and can easily cross an entire ocean basin. When these waves reach shallow water, the waves slow down and their height can build a wall of water that causes devastation on coastline. Impact of Tsunamis: The most disturbing environmental effect of tsunamis is the loss of human and animal life that results in many undiscovered corpses. These bodies attract flies and other transmitters of disease and pollute surrounding soil and water. Along with this, infected bodies spread diseases (Griffin, 2012). Damage of natural coral reefs and rock formation can also increase the problem of erosion along the shoreline.

The destruction of these formations impacts in sea life and human inhabitants may lose their valuable source of food and income. Geographic locations: Tsunamis are occurred in the Pacific Ocean mainly rather than the Indian Ocean, because of more subduction zones that produces most powerful earthquakes and tsunamis (Lovgren, 2005). South Asia, Southeast Asia, Pacific Islands are mainly affected areas of tsunamis. In countries, New Zealand, Indonesia, Australia and then west to Papua New guinea and Indonesia, northeast Asian coastline, North America and western North American coastline. Resources: Tsunamis are monitored by open-ocean buoys and coastal tide gauges that report information about minute changes in sea level to stations within the region. Seismograph stations record earthquake activity and Deep-Ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) detects slight changes in water pressure (Valdes, Halabrin & Lamb, 2012).

Global Differential GPS network predicts the size of tsunami and gives warning of incoming waves. Disaster preparedness: Through the monitoring technologies, warnings are given to people for preparing to face the situation (Tankut, 2009). With the help of this, size, pressure and effectiveness of tsunamis are judged and affected areas of coastline should be warned to leave out their place for some time.

Impact of technology on political and economic conditions Politics: The political ramifications of a disaster and its relief are usually seen to be especially influential in developing countries. The role of politics in developing countries may appear more important than developed countries. In less developed countries, political systems are less stable (Mamat, Mansor & Poy, 2001). Developed countries would easily implement these technologies to manage disasters due to their strong economy, infrastructure and advanced systems. At the same time, less developed countries would not implement these systems due to poor infrastructure and poor economy.

  This technology could cause various issues in less developed countries such as lack of proper implementation and effective resources, need of researchers and other technologies to implement this system. Economics: Developed countries can implement these advanced technologies that save them from these disasters and its damages. So, their economy is less influenced through disasters. At the same time, less developed countries have limited resources to prepare and recover from disaster (Jones & Murphy, 2009).  In addition of this, their human resource base is weakened by lack of economic opportunities that leads to increase susceptibility to disaster cost.

In Less developed countries, the buildings are often poorly designed due to cost, so disaster damages greater are in these areas. For example, in 1995, an earthquake measuring 7.2 on the Richter scale hit the Japanese city of Kobe and only 5000 people were killed. On the other hand, in 1999, an earthquake measuring 6.8-7.0 killed 17,000 people in Turkey (McEntire, 2007). Summary On the basis of above discussion by case study assignment help experts concluded that these information and communication technologies to monitor the disaster phenomena are beneficial for human beings and society. Through this, they will predict the disaster situation and prepare with necessary tools and things to survive in this critical situation. With the help of advance prediction and monitoring, the negative impact of disasters on human beings, environment and society will be reduced.

Human have no control on these natural disasters, but they can save their lives and reduce the damages of disasters through these advanced technologies. At the same time, these technologies are costly and less developed countries can’t afford those. So, these advanced monitoring technologies will create more difference in developed and developing countries in terms of political and economic conditions. The economy of developed countries will be less influenced by disasters as compared with developing countries. So, this becomes the negative impact of these technologies. References Barr, l. (2003). Volcano!: When a Mountain Explodes. USA: Capstone PressInc. Boyle, A. (2012). High Tech tools of the Volcano Trades. Retrieved from: Forbes. (2010). The World’s Most Earthquake-Vulnerable Cities. Retrieved from: Griffin, J. (2012). Wipe Out! Environmental Effects of Tsunamis. Retrieved from: Groppelli, G. & Viereck-Goette, L. (2010). Stratigraphy and Geology of Volcanic Areas. USA: Geological Society of America. Jones, E. C. & Murphy, A. D. (2009). The Political Economy of Hazards and Disasters. USA: Rowman Altamira. Lewis, S. (2009). Remote sensing for natural disasters: Facts and figures. Retrieved from: Lovgren, S. (2005). Tsunamis More Likely to Hit U.S. Than Asia. Retrieved from: Mamat, R., Mansor, S. & Poy, T. T. (2001). Spatial Information Technology for Disaster Management. Pertanika J. Sci. & Techno. Supplement , 9(1), 65-72. McEntire, D. A. (2007). Disciplines, Disasters, and Emergency Management: The Convergence and Divergence of Concepts, Issues and Trends from the Research Literature. USA: Charles C Thomas Publisher. Pellerin, C. (2010). Advancing Technology Improves Earthquake Monitoring, Analysis: Earthquakes can’t be predicted, but new tools help scientists, aid agencies. Retrieved from: Rose, W. I. (2006). Volcanic hazards in Central America. USA: Geological Society of America. Tankut, A. T.  (2009). Earthquakes and Tsunamis: Civil Engineering Disaster Mitigation Activities – Implementing Millennium Development Goals. Germany: Springer. Valdes, R., Halabrin, N. & Lamb, R. (2012). How Tsunamis Work. Retrieved from: Whyte, M. (2010). Myth of the Social Volcano: Perceptions of Inequality and Distributive Injustice in Contemporary China. USA: Stanford University Press. Get 24X7 business and case study assignment help of any topic from experienced assignment writing experts of US, UK and Australia.